Water Supply: Exploring the options
Focus 1: Managing Water Demand considers how cities in industrialised and developing countries can use water demand management to meet the challenge of increasing demands. Research considered end-use and options analysis and various strategies and tools at both customer and utility level to maximize the benefits of water services while minimizing the usage and losses of water.
- Water Demand Management in the City of the Future
- Demand Management Options Model
- Integrated Supply-Demand Planning report for water in 2037 in Alexandria
- Demonstration in an informal settlement in Alexandria
- Demonstration on water loss management in Zaragoza
Focus 2: Water Security through Re-use reviews the effectiveness of Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) and Engineered Environmental Buffer technologies to enable safe water reuse so that water is used multiple times by reclamation treatment for return to the supply side of the infrastructure. The removal of contaminants by different combinations of SAT, membrane systems and conventional pre-treatment and post-treatment systems was analysed.
Focus 3: Water Quality from Natural Treatment Systems considers modelling of viral fate and transport in aquifers for Engineered Environmental Buffer, SAT and bank filtration systems and the removal of pharmaceutically active compounds and endocrine disrupting compounds during bank filtration and artificial recharge. A spreadsheet-based tool was developed for prediction or preliminary assessment of removal of these compounds.
- Maximising the Use of Natural Systems in all Aspects of the Municipal Water Cycle
- Prediction tool for removal of organic micropollutants during bank filtration
Focus 4: Use of rainwater. Demonstrations in Beijing and Belo Horizonte showed the viability of collecting rainwater to supply water for horticulture. The Beijing demonstration includes an economic analysis.
- Demonstration on rainwater harvesting in Beijing
- Demonstration on rainwater harvesting in Belo Horizonte
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